Friday, February 7, 2020

Discussion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 8

Discussion - Essay Example They develop socio-psychological problems, resulting in low confidence and low adjustment within the given paradigm and become ‘depressed’. The widespread implications of depression amongst the employees significantly impacting the economic performance, socio-psychological well being of the workforce and organizational capabilities become urgent issues that need to be addressed. Effective interventions and treatment of the mental illness needs to be taken by from the holistic point of view because holistic approach treats the disease, not as an isolated event but as part of the wider perspectives that takes into account the physical, mental and social aspect of the individuals. Harter, Schmidt and Keyes (2003) assert that ‘presence of positive emotional state and positive appraisals of the workers and his or her relationships within the workplace accentuate workers performance and quality of life’. The job satisfaction, encouraging work environment and leadership initiatives that work towards mutual respect, shared learning and understanding become major facilitating agents of improved performance. Empowered workforce and proactive management promote positive attitude and impetus for higher level of achievement. Thus mental and physical wellbeing of the workers becomes important consideration for management, consultants and employees. (279) Through the ages behavioral scientists have tried to explain human behavior for the wider welfare of human race. Human behavior under normal and excruciating circumstances differ widely and is often subject to one’s approach and understanding of the issue that broadly confines to individual’s choice and thereby his or her actions. Some scientists broadly categorize abnormal behavior in terms of 4 Ds of human behavior described as: deviation from the generally acceptable social behavior or acts considered ‘normal’ by people at large; deviation from the social

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Project proposal Essay Example for Free

Project proposal Essay RESEARCH TOPIC PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CASE STUDY OF CHEVRON) INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY â€Å"Performance appraisal is an evaluation of the appraisee performance in his or her job while potential appraisal helps in discovering the appraisee’s capabilities, skills and talents for development.†(Obisi, 1996). Worldwide, performance appraisals are used in nearly all organizations. There are different tools and number of goals that performance appraisals focus to examine individual’s performance and potential of development, (Leena and Twinkle, 2012: pg01-06). Therefore, the general area of our study is performance appraisal systems in organization. Only minority activities in personnel management are concerned with evaluating employees as individuals. Performance appraisal is a planned interaction between employees and their supervisors, during which the former examine the performance of the latter to identify strengths and weaknesses with the view to improving future performance, (Kofi, 2012: pg22). For their, appraisal is part and parcel of an important personnel activity salary planning and administration. Having accepted that staff performance appraisal is a legitimate activity in organization, we shall familiarize ourselves with the difficulties concerning both accuracy and fairness. It is important to note that the culture of value-system of the organization will act as the major determinant of both the appraisal scheme adopted and the way it is introduced. For instance if the culture is one which favors control and measurement of people, then it is likely that system will be imposed on the participants, but that it will at least contain some measurable criteria against which to judge performance. But where openness performance are encourage, any system will be discussed first with those involved, with the result that appraisals are more likely to be joint problem – solving affairs rather than a calling to account by a superior. Similarly, we can appreciate the importance of performance appraisal when we realize that it is through it that organizational progress at the target and productivity of workers can be evaluated. For instance, a high performance rating tells the workers the organizations is aware of his devotion to his job increase his performance via the goal when were set. The above arguments are not weights. Today open appraisal system has come to stay and any organization, which ignores open appraisal system, should be prepared to face the negative consequences of low performance, conflict and uncertain future. (Obisi, 1996). Alo, (1999) defines performance appraisal as a process involving deliberate stock taking of the success, which an individual or organization has achieved in performing assigned tasks or meeting set goals over a period of time. The specific subject matter of our t is study concern the use of performance of employee as a basis for judging the contribution and weakness of emplo yees so that continuing efforts can be made to build a strange and more effective organization performance appraisal system helps in retaining promotional and retaining policies. Performance appraisal as the process of appraising staff performance against previously agreed standard and targets. It is based on guidelines given to employer by the management of what is expected of them in terms of organizational objectives. Performance appraisal involves the observation and evaluation of employee work behavior or the result that behavior by some. To appraise is to judge the work quality or conditions of something or to find out its value. However, it is important to note that one of the responsibilities of manager is to evaluate the performance of his subordinates. The essence of the evaluation is to assess their character, attitude, potentials and past performance on the job. According to Alo (1999) defines performance appraisal as a process involving deliberate stock taking of the success, which an individual or organization has achieved in performing assigned tasks or meeting set goals over a period of time. Atiomo (2000) agrees with Fajana (1997) that perfor mance appraisal is a system which provides organizations with a means of identifying not only what people’s performance levels are but which areas those levels need to be improved if maximum use is to be made of human resource. In most organizations, there is always a way instituted to evaluate productive behavior of the workers. This is important if the goals for which  organization was established are to be attained. Further, most industrial organizations institute mechanism to solve human problems of workers such as motivation and job satisfaction with an overall objective of ensuring higher productivity. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The process of appraising the performance of employees is made difficult by the fact that criteria of effective performance are frequently difficult to define, the areas of performance for which an individual is responsible are often unclear and evaluation tend to be based not on measurement of actual performance but on the perceptions and judgments of an employee’s immediate boss. And also there can be ineffective if the performance appraisal system does not correspond with organizational culture and system. Despite that performance appraisal will be of immense assistance to management in formal organizations in general and CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED. It can be detrimental to quality improvement: it has been proposed that the use of performance systems in organizations adversely affect organizations pursuits of quality performance. Negative perceptions, quite often individuals have negative perceptions of performance appraisal receiving and/or the anticipation of receiving a performance appraisal can be uncomfortable and distressful and potentially cause tension between supervisors and subordinates. Performance appraisal should provide accurate and relevant ratings of an employee’s performance as compared to pre-established criteria that is organizational expectations. Legal issues: if performance appraisal are not carried out appropriately, legal issues could result that place the organization at risk. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main purpose and objective of studying performance appraisal systems is as follow. i.To understand varieties of an heir use in personnel administration and motivation of workers for higher productive behavior.  Evaluate the strength of performance appraisal in supplying data that could help the management of the CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED to make an efficient use of its human resources. iii.To understand problem of performance appraisal system and reaction of workers to consequences of their adoption iv.Highlight whether the appraisal technique as presently  creates a learning experience for the employees of the organization to motivate them on improving their level of performance on the job. v.To find out whether the employees of the company are usually satisfied with the way they are being appraised by their supervisors. Vi.Find out how effective is the use of performance appraisal technique as a toll for determining promotion, salary increases and training. RESEARCH QUESTIONS To direct the conduct of this study, the following research questions were developed whose answers will go along in attaining the objectives of the study. i.Do you agree with the fact that performance appraisal is significant to the personnel and effective human resource manager? ii.To what extent can Performance appraisal as an instrument enhance effective human resource management? iii.In what areas has the Chevron Nigeria Limited performance appraisal scheme created an impact on employees? vi.Are performance appraisal reports usually a true reflection of employee’s strength and weakness? v.Is the present appraisal scheme appropriate for evaluating suitability for promotion and salary increment? vi.Do bosses influence performance appraisal reports? Could proper use of performance appraisal lead to employee’s motivation? RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS The following research hypothesis has been developed for the purpose of this study tested for acceptance or rejection. H0:The usefulness of performance appraisal is significant to the personnel and human resource managers. H1:The usefulness of performance appraisal make no significant to the personnel and human resource manager. H0:Performance appraisal could be used to enhance employee’s performance H1:performance appraisal could not be used to enhance employee’s performance. H0:performance appraisal systems usually a true reflection of employee’s strength and weaknesses H1:performance appraisal systems does not usually reflect a true employee’s strength and weaknesses H0:Present appraisal scheme is appropriate for evaluating suitability for promotion and salary increment H1:Present appraisal scheme is not appropriate for evaluating suitability for promotion and salary increment. H0:Proper used of performance appraisal leads to employee’s motivation. H1:Proper used of performance appraisal does not lead to employee’s motivation. SCOPE OF THE STUDY Because of the time constraint, the research will be primarily directed to the country headquarter CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED located at 2, Chevron drive, Lekki Peninsula, Lagos, Nigeria. It will delve into such sensitive and areas like promotion, salary increases, training and reward for hard work. To make the research work more reliable and valid the sample study will cut across all categories of junior staff, officers and management staff. It is my sincere hope that the study of the research will be of immense assistance to the management in formal organizations in general and CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED in particular. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Generally, in any meaningful project work of this nature, some difficulties are likely to come up. Such difficulties include: TIME FACTOR: Time factor is a major problem because as an undergraduate student, there is little or no time to allocate to a greater work as the available time is shared between this study and other subject course study. FINANCE: Research project is quite expensive. Preparing the research instrument, moving about to gather the data, administering the research instrument, compiling, validating, writing, typesetting and printing the report cost a lot of money. For an undergraduate, the fund may not really flow as much as needed. HUMAN FACTOR: All efforts would be made towards ensuring error free findings. However, absence of errors is not totally guaranteed as all human are prone to mistakes. DATA GATHERING: Eliciting of data from the stakeholders might also be like a camel trying to pass through the eye of a needle in the sense of inaccessibility and unwillingness of executives and other respondents in providing data information for the purpose. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of this study includes: The study will assist organizational control by ensuring efficient initialization of human resource. It will also be of assistance in formulation of acceptable and objective performance appraisal. It will also assist in areas such as staff promotion or advancement as well as demotion. Performance appraisal helps to maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises. It helps to identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on the right job. It helps to maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and development. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This section of the research proposal will examine, research design, research population and sample, data collection method and procedures for data analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN The survey research methods would be used in this study and a case study of CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED would be undertaken. POPULATION OF THE STUDY The population of the study would be made up of the entire staff of CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED located at 2, Chevron drive, Lekki Peninsula, Lagos, Nigeria. RESEARCH SAMPLE After the sampling size has been determined, simple random sampling techniques would be utilized in coding the sample. The reason for using the simple random sample is precisely to give each individual in the population equal chances of being included in the sample and to make it possible to every sectional group of individual to be represented. DATA COLLECTED METHOD Both primary and secondary sources of data collection method would be adopted in gathering data relevant information on this study. The primary sources will consist of a well-structured questionnaire to be administered to the respondents within three levels of management (i.e. top, middle and lower management) of CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED. The secondary data would be collected from the texts, journals, newspapers, seminar papers, magazines, employee’s performance reports from the personnel departments of CHEVRON NIGERIA LIMITED and other literature on performance appraisal as an  instrument for effective human resource management the usefulness of financial ratio analysis. DATA ANALYSIS METHOD The analysis of the data to be obtained would be done by the use Chi-Square methods of statistical analysis. The spearman’s rank approach ÃŽ §2 = [ (O – E)2] E E= Expected value O= Observe value ÃŽ §2= Chi-Square DEFINITION OF TERMS Appraisal: A method of assessing and grading employees for the purpose of promotion, commendation/development and salary increase. Performance: It refers to the output or personal contribution of an employee to the overall goals and objectives of an organization. A high performance may yield positive appraisal and vice versa. Employee: It refers to the workforce of every organization or firm Human Resource Management: It is a term that can notes the management of human being and raw material of an organization. The blending of both is crucial if the object of an organization is to be realized. Organization: It is the entity where economic activities take place. It could be formal or informal. Organizations strive to harness its human and material resources in order to achieve its goals. REFERENCES Obisi, C. (1996). Personnel Management: lakbod enterprise, Ibadan. Leena. T and Twinkle. P. (2012). From Performance Appraisal to Performance Management. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, Volume 3, Issue 5. 01- 06. Kofi, O. A., and Vincent, P.K. (2012). Performance Appraisal As Employee Motivation Mechanism In Selected Financial Institutions In Kumasi, Ashanti Region Of Ghana. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol.2 Issue 6, 22. Atiomo, A.C. (2000). Human Resource Management: Malthouse Management Science Books, Lagos. Fajana, S. (1997). Human Resources Management: Labofin and Company, Lagos. Alo, O. (1999). Human Resource Management in Nigeria: Business and Institutional Support Associates Limited, Lagos. UNIVERSITY of LAGOS Department of Business Administration Research Proposal NAME: LAWAL ADEBISI FATIMAT MATRIC NUMBER: 100203122 DEPARTMENT:BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COURSE TITLE:RESEARCH SEMINAR COURSE CODE:FBA321 RESEARCH TOPIC PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CASE STUDY OF CHEVRON)

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Usage of Plague as a Biological Weapon Essay -- Biology Terrorism Terr

Usage of Plague as a Biological Weapon Bioterrorism is defined as the intentional use of dangerous microorganisms or viruses to kill a large population of people. Common examples of biological agents include anthrax, botulism, smallpox, and the plague. The most common form is the bubonic plague that caused the deaths of a large percentage of the population in Europe during the Middle Ages. The bacterium, Yersinia pestis, causes three forms of the plague; however the pneumonic plague is used in bioterrorism because of its advantages in transmission and production. To be infected with the pneumonic plague, a person simply needs to breathe in enough of the aerosolized bacteria to allow them to incubate inside the body. Symptoms usually appear two to four days afterward and treatment consists of antibiotics and hospitalization. Death occurs if an infected person does not receive medical aid within 48 hours of symptom appearance. Its advantages as a pathogen make the plague an impending biological weapon. The halls are empty and dark. The clock on the lounge wall reads 2:34 AM and a few nurses finish their routine patient checks at the General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. The slight humming and beeps from the machines are the only sounds heard in the hospital as the last nurse quietly returns to her office. Unknown to the staff and patients, a terrorist attack has been launched within the building. There are no alarms, warnings, or signs that signal that anything has happened. From the outside, it would seem as if it was simply another night at the hospital. Yet, millions of aerosolized bacteria have been released into the air through the air conditioning system, causing every room with an air conditioning vent to explode wit... ...Bibliography Brannon, Heather. (2005) Plague as a Bioterrorism Threat. About Inc. July 20, 2005: http://dermatology.about.com/cs/bioterrorism/a/plague.htm Emedicine. (2003-2005). Biological Warfare. Emedicine Consumer Health. July 20, 2005: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/15704-3.asp Inglesby, T.V. et al. (2000). Plague as a Biological Weapon. Journal of American Medicine, (Vol. 283), p. 2281-2290. International Medical Corps. (1984-2004). Biological Threats. International Medical Corps. July 31, 2005: http://www.imcworldwide.org/cbr/L1C-m2.html Michigan Homeland Security. (2001-2005). Bioterrorism Agent Information. Michigan Homeland Security. July 20, 2005: http://www.michigan.gov/homeland/0,1607,7-173-23607-57902--,00.html Perry, R., Fetherson, J. D., (1997) Yersinia pestis- Etiologic Agent of Plague. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, (Vol. 10), p. 35-66

Monday, January 13, 2020

Othello – Iago Character Analysis

Iago, in Shakespeare's Othello, is a deceiving character because he tells lies in order to get what he wants. He interacts with people only to manipulate them, but most importantly he never reveals his true feelings or motives. Iago might say things that suggest what his motive is, but he soon contradicts himself with another suggestion making it extremely difficult to understand him. Although Iago's true motives cannot be determined, some motives could be jealousy, the enjoyment of seeing people suffer, or power.Iago's jealous of Othello and Cassio because he thinks that both of them slept with his wife, Emilia. In Iago's first soliloquy at the end of act 1, Iago says that Othello might have slept with his wife and even though this is a rumor, he says that he will believe it. Then in his second soliloquy at the end of act 2, scene 1, Iago reiterates and once again says that Othello slept with his wife, the only difference is that now he thinks Cassio has slept with his wife too beca use he believes that Cassio is a â€Å"proper man† and a playboy.So, this seems to be a driving force for Iago to ruin Othello and Cassio. Iago's jealousy towards Othello quickly turns into a jealousy toward Cassio too because Othello appointed Cassio as lieutenant instead of Iago. Iago believes that he should be lieutenant because he has fought by Othello's side in battles and because he has actual war experience, whereas Cassio learned all of his tactics from books. So, he is jealous because he didn't get the job, but he is angry because he thinks that Othello made Cassio his lieutenant because Cassio helped Othello marry Desdemona.Iago doesn't know anything about proportion, meaning that if he has been wronged he will bring justice to himself by giving the culprit a punishment that doesn't match the crime. In this case, Iago wasn't appointed as lieutenant; therefore, he wants to torture Othello and Cassio mentally and then kill them. This could be the result of his hatred and jealousy. Another motive that might cause Iago's behavior is that he is a sadist; he just likes to enjoy watching other people suffer.Iago is a very clever person and he enjoys seeing how idiots make fools of themselves. One of these idiots is Iago's â€Å"buddy,† Roderigo. Roderigo is a typical wealthy, Venetian aristocrat who is madly in love with Desdemona and he has given Iago the task of helping him woo her. Iago uses this to his advantage, even though Iago uses Roderigo to ruin Cassio and Othello, he gets some amusement by watching Roderigo prance around and go nuts over Desdemona. Iago also finds it funny when Roderigo wants to go kill himself after he finds out that Desdemona married Othello.There are multiple times throughout the play where Roderigo should have known that Iago was just using him for money and some laughs and since Roderigo doesn't pick up on this, Iago can use Roderigo to his advantage. Power is probably the most important motive. Iago is very co nniving and clever and he can use this to manipulate people. It is clearly seen that Iago thrives for power because he loves manipulating people so that they doe exactly what he says. He does this to Roderigo many times, like when Iago tells Roderigo to give him all of his money and when he convinces Roderigo to kill Cassio.He even controls Othello to the point that Othello suspects his wife and decides to kill her. Iago's thirst for power is also seen when Cassio is appointed to be Othello's lieutenant because this was, supposedly, the basis for his revenge. He really wanted to be lieutenant because it is a very high position and with it comes a lot of power and Iago proves that he would do anything to get that sort of power. Therefore, one of Iago's motives could be that he has a tremendous thirst for power.In conclusion, many believe that Iago is just a psychopath, which is true to some extent; however, he is also very smart and clever. If he wasn't clever he would not be able to carry out his revenge because he wouldn't be able to manipulate anyone. The probable motives – power, sadism, jealousy and anger are some reasons for why Iago is psychotic, but it is nearly impossible to figure out his true motives from the text. Even though this may be true, Iago does suggest these motives and all of them are supported by the text, but even this could be one of Iago's ploys because nobody can truly understand Iago. Othello – Iago Character Analysis Iago, in Shakespeare's Othello, is a deceiving character because he tells lies in order to get what he wants. He interacts with people only to manipulate them, but most importantly he never reveals his true feelings or motives. Iago might say things that suggest what his motive is, but he soon contradicts himself with another suggestion making it extremely difficult to understand him. Although Iago's true motives cannot be determined, some motives could be jealousy, the enjoyment of seeing people suffer, or power.Iago's jealous of Othello and Cassio because he thinks that both of them slept with his wife, Emilia. In Iago's first soliloquy at the end of act 1, Iago says that Othello might have slept with his wife and even though this is a rumor, he says that he will believe it. Then in his second soliloquy at the end of act 2, scene 1, Iago reiterates and once again says that Othello slept with his wife, the only difference is that now he thinks Cassio has slept with his wife too beca use he believes that Cassio is a â€Å"proper man† and a playboy.So, this seems to be a driving force for Iago to ruin Othello and Cassio. Iago's jealousy towards Othello quickly turns into a jealousy toward Cassio too because Othello appointed Cassio as lieutenant instead of Iago. Iago believes that he should be lieutenant because he has fought by Othello's side in battles and because he has actual war experience, whereas Cassio learned all of his tactics from books. So, he is jealous because he didn't get the job, but he is angry because he thinks that Othello made Cassio his lieutenant because Cassio helped Othello marry Desdemona.Iago doesn't know anything about proportion, meaning that if he has been wronged he will bring justice to himself by giving the culprit a punishment that doesn't match the crime. In this case, Iago wasn't appointed as lieutenant; therefore, he wants to torture Othello and Cassio mentally and then kill them. This could be the result of his hatred and jealousy. Another motive that might cause Iago's behavior is that he is a sadist; he just likes to enjoy watching other people suffer.Iago is a very clever person and he enjoys seeing how idiots make fools of themselves. One of these idiots is Iago's â€Å"buddy,† Roderigo. Roderigo is a typical wealthy, Venetian aristocrat who is madly in love with Desdemona and he has given Iago the task of helping him woo her. Iago uses this to his advantage, even though Iago uses Roderigo to ruin Cassio and Othello, he gets some amusement by watching Roderigo prance around and go nuts over Desdemona. Iago also finds it funny when Roderigo wants to go kill himself after he finds out that Desdemona married Othello.There are multiple times throughout the play where Roderigo should have known that Iago was just using him for money and some laughs and since Roderigo doesn't pick up on this, Iago can use Roderigo to his advantage. Power is probably the most important motive. Iago is very co nniving and clever and he can use this to manipulate people. It is clearly seen that Iago thrives for power because he loves manipulating people so that they doe exactly what he says. He does this to Roderigo many times, like when Iago tells Roderigo to give him all of his money and when he convinces Roderigo to kill Cassio.He even controls Othello to the point that Othello suspects his wife and decides to kill her. Iago's thirst for power is also seen when Cassio is appointed to be Othello's lieutenant because this was, supposedly, the basis for his revenge. He really wanted to be lieutenant because it is a very high position and with it comes a lot of power and Iago proves that he would do anything to get that sort of power. Therefore, one of Iago's motives could be that he has a tremendous thirst for power.In conclusion, many believe that Iago is just a psychopath, which is true to some extent; however, he is also very smart and clever. If he wasn't clever he would not be able to carry out his revenge because he wouldn't be able to manipulate anyone. The probable motives – power, sadism, jealousy and anger are some reasons for why Iago is psychotic, but it is nearly impossible to figure out his true motives from the text. Even though this may be true, Iago does suggest these motives and all of them are supported by the text, but even this could be one of Iago's ploys because nobody can truly understand Iago.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Discretion Within The Criminal Justice Process - 1667 Words

Discretion in policing and the court system is a necessary and unavoidable facet of criminal justice work, yet it is still very controversial. Discretion exists when courtroom actors (police officers, attorneys, judges) have the flexibility to choose an appropriate response to a situation. Police discretion is defined as â€Å"The opportunity of law enforcement officers to exercise choice in their daily activities† (Nowacki, 2015). This means that actors with a great deal of discretion at their disposal may allow biases to affect their decision-making. These decisions lead to important implications throughout the criminal justice process, especially in the courtroom. The process begins with the decision to arrest by a law enforcement officer in the field. Once the case is forwarded to the prosecuting attorney, multifarious avenues of discretionary decisions are available to resolve a case. Potential issues that could arise and that are ever-present in everyday policing include racism, sexism and socialism (Miller, 2015). These issues ultimately have a negative affect on the criminal justice process, leading civilians to not trust the one process and actors that are there to help them. While discretion should play a role in the actions a courtroom actor takes and cannot be eliminated entirely, instead it should be limited and controlled throughout the criminal justice environment so that citizens can once again trust the process and so that there will be no disparities. TheShow MoreRelatedLegal - Discretion in the Legal System Essay1226 Words   |  5 PagesExplain the role of discretion in the criminal justice system. As a society we believe that offenders should be held accountable for their actions but also treated fairly in the criminal investigation, trial process and sentencing. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Differences Between Gender And Gender - 845 Words

exuality and Gender Generally, we think there are two sexes and two genders: male and female. Many sociologists have based their theories of sex and gender on this binary system. From birth we are taught to act either like a lady or like a man, there is no in between. We believe gender is shaped by biology, that it is a doing, and it originates from our cultures yet, gender nonconforming people may challenge these theories. First, although we believe there are only two sexes, there are actually five (Fausto-Sterling, 1993). There are hermaphrodites who have one testes and one ovary, merms that have male genitalia and some ovaries, ferms that have ovaries and some male genitalia, and then man and woman (Fausto-Sterling, 1993). Also, one in every four births are intersex (Fausto-Sterling, 1993). We want these gender nonconforming people to be â€Å"fixed† surgically because they no longer fit into our social norms, and threaten what we think to be true about gender, however they are more common than many think (Fausto-Sterling, 1993). We try to explain gender differences by biology. Many people and sociologists believe in the idea of biology as destiny (Kimmel, 2012). We use the idea of being biologically male or female in order to explain why we are more prone to act or look one way or another (Kimmel, 2012). Women are smaller and more petite and are supposed to have more emotions, while men are thought to be biologically taller and better at things like math (Kimmel, 2012).Show MoreRelatedGender Differences Between Gender And Sex1334 Words   |  6 Pagesmany people are constantly categorized to be confused about what their whole life and purpose is, because they cannot be placed in one of the two socially accepted gender categories- male or female. This idea or â€Å"disorder†(Medical Dictionary) is commonly known as being transgender. I do not think that there are only two categories for gender; I believe that there are people who are not considered to be only male or female, but both. Due to differen t religions, influences, social structures, and expectationsRead MoreGender Differences Between Sexuality And Gender888 Words   |  4 PagesIn sociology, we make a general distinction between sexuality and gender. Sex is the biological trait that we use to determine whether or not a person is a male or a female, whether it be through chromosomes, genitalia, or some other kind of visual physical description. When society talks about the obvious differences between men and women, they are often drawing on sex rather than gender, which is now an understanding of how society helps to shape our new understanding of these biological categoriesRead MoreGender Differences Between Sex And Gender911 Words   |  4 Pages Now in our generation there has been great controversy about what gender you are and what kind of love you believe in. One thing many people fail to realize is that your gender and your designated sex are two completely different things. Not only is there that divide bet ween sex and gender but there is pre-determined rules that everyone is expected to follow that is connected to their specific gender. Because gender is an ever-changing thing for some there needs to be the support for those wishingRead MoreGender Differences Between Gender And Gpa Essay967 Words   |  4 Pages Male and Female participants were analyzed to provide insight on gender differences. For the comparison between gender and GPA (T-test #2) using a t-value of (t=.056). This analysis concluded that female subjects had a GPA of (3.371 ∓ .329, n=115) versus males who had a GPA of (3.375 ∓ .373, n=30)(p=.9556)(Fig. _____/ table____). Sleep hours were then investigated to illuminate the impact it has on GPA. ANOVA (A-test #1) results indicated that subjects that got 0-4 hours of sleep had a GPA of (3Read MoreDifferences Between Gender And Gender Inequality998 Words   |  4 Pagesidea was to have ideas about gender coming from not only different countries, but different continents. Based on what I read in the textbook, and what we have discussed in class, gender is the idea that different societies create about feminism and masculinity based on the performance from both sexes. The problem of gender inequality is not recent, but something that many societies have been trying to fix for a long time. As soon I asked about their experience with gender, they all answered the sameRead MoreDifferences Between Sex And Gender871 Words   |  4 PagesWith sex and gender being such a predominate factor in determining our position in society, it is difficult to hinder ourselves from distinguishing certain characteristics an d attributes to be masculine (male) or feminine(female). Is is paramount to distinguish the differences between sex and gender. Sex is determined by our hormones and anatomy while gender is the social meanings, behaviors, and expectations attached to a given sex by society (Logg, Lecture Notes, Fall 2015). Generally speakingRead MoreDifference Between Sex and Gender1127 Words   |  5 Pagessociety, the in depth differences between sex and gender has grown to be one that is discussed extensively by psychologists and sociologists too. Sex in itself is a more scientific term that explains the innate physical attributes of an individual. On the other hand gender carries a more social tone. Meaning, that it refers to the different clothing, activities, career choices, and positions people hold in society. This essay aims to highlight some of the key differential aspects between these two concepts;Read MoreDifference Between Sex and Gender1134 Words   |  5 Pagessociety, the in dept h differences between sex and gender has grown to be one that is discussed extensively by psychologists and sociologists too. Sex in itself is a more scientific term that explains the innate physical attributes of an individual. On the other hand gender carries a more social tone. Meaning, that it refers to the different clothing, activities, career choices, and positions people hold in society. This essay aims to highlight some of the key differential aspects between these two concepts;Read MoreDifferences Between Sex And Gender Essay1151 Words   |  5 PagesThere are distinct differences between Sex and Gender. Sex is divided up into two divisions, male or female, based upon their reproductive system. Gender is the notion set by society on what social behaviours are acceptable for males and females, for example the expectation that females are more caring or nurturing than men. Gender can be further divided into two subcategorise: identity and stereotype. Gender identity is the concept that your sex and gender do not have to be the same but can differentRead MoreDifferences Between Genders And Communication Essay1613 Words   |  7 Pages When you think of gender differences you probably automatically consider anatomical and biological differences. Perhaps you contemplate about differences in appearance or maybe occupation. Gender differences are relevant in politics, the workplace, domestic commitments, etc. One large gender difference that appears to be prevalent is that of communication. I believe that gender communication holds many advantages and disadvantages within discussions as well as in distinctive settings. When looking

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Challenges with Freedom of Speech - 1008 Words

Freedom of Speech and Information: Challenges with Freedom of Speech: The right to freedom of speech was adopted following the long history of suppression of ideas that were considered harmful by people. These suppressions also threatened democracy since they presented numerous difficulties for people to debate essential issues like war and peace. Consequently, a free speech movement emerged that eventually led to the protection of the right for people to express all ideas or the freedom of speech. Notably the right to freedom of speech has few slight exceptions though it was adopted to enable people to freely express ideas. While its one of the most appreciated rights, freedom of speech has continued to face several challenges in the recent past. Some of the major challenges to freedom of speech include new technological and social issues or concerns, the Internet, and government legislations such as the Patriot Act. Additionally, the other challenge with this concept is the need to limit its extreme forms such as hate speech in order to protect other human rights (Freedom of Expression, n.d.). The need to limit technologies that provide unprecedented opportunities for freedom of speech is other challenge. This challenge arises because authorities need to restrict the spread of illegal content and harmful information. Challenges with Freedom of Information: Even though there are remarkable efforts towards the adoption of freedom of information laws across theShow MoreRelatedSpeech Is The Right Of Freedom Of Speech1560 Words   |  7 PagesGeorge Washington once said If freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. This mentality still holds true in the United States today where the freedom of speech is held as one of the greatest rights Americans possess. However, to fully understand the first Amendment right of freedom of speech it is paramount to understand what it entails, its limitations, and how it has evolved over time. The first question that must be answered is what isRead MoreAnalysis Of Freedom From Slavery By Frederick Douglass715 Words   |  3 Pagesjoy and gratitude of his freedom from slavery, but he goes on to write of the challenges that freedom brought him as well. Upon his freedom from slavery, Douglass was joyous—he had removed himself from the dehumanizing environment that slavery had created for him. However, Douglass quickly realized that freedom and the â€Å"real world† included challenges that he had yet to expect. Douglass’s linguistic style contributes to his expression of his complex feelings towards freedom from slavery. DouglassRead MoreThe Confederate Flag : A Harmful Form Of Free Speech964 Words   |  4 Pagesvery legitimately be seen as a harmful form of free speech. However in present day, the confederate flag, for the most part does not carry the same meaning or same threat. Many people, who express themselves through the confederate flag as a symbol, do so as a form of showing southern pride or southern heritage. The current symbol of the confederate flag does not display the same form of harm as it did in history. The current flag does not physically harm anyone nor does it present a credible threatRead MoreThe Rights Of The United States883 Words   |  4 Pagesamendment guarantee citizens crucial freedoms, which are freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of press, freedom of assembly and freedom of petition. The First Amendment is very powerful and has the ability to protect us but sometime even harm us (for example some of the lawsuits against First Amendment). American citizens have certain rights to be proud that they are Americans. One of this rights is the freedom of speech. The freedom of speech is not only spoken words it s muchRead MoreThe Battle Of The Confederate Flag1321 Words   |  6 Pagesincredibly difficult and unjust to promote a system to which state authority prevents speech that they find offensive. It is nearly impossible and impractical for a state entity to understand what can and can’t be considered offensive, and what is offensive to some and not to others. That is why the harm principle is a great principle to understand the limits of how far free speech should and can go. Free speech should be protected and promoted so long as it does not create credible harm to anotherRead MoreFreedom of Expression Is Vital to a Free Society Essay example1125 Words   |  5 Pagesthereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition th e Government for a redress of grievances.† Does this mean that freedom of speech cannot be prohibited in any way? Are there any reasonable arguments for limiting speech? In this paper, these questions will be examined along with a discussion of where the basic right of free speech originated. Today, society or government can attempt to regulate speech, but it cannot preventRead MoreAmerica s Constitution Was Built Upon The Fundamentals That All Citizens1065 Words   |  5 Pagesintolerance needs to stop. Additionally, they believe that citizens should become more accepting of others and willing to converse despite their differences. Bloomberg wrote in his commencement speech at Harvard’s graduation for the class of 2014 that, citizens of the U.S. should protect their freedom of speech and also to tolerate the beliefs of others. Likewise Kaminer argued in her essay A Civic Duty to Annoy published in â€Å"The Atlantic† that citizens have a responsibility to ente r thought provokingRead MoreMccutcheon V. Fec Case1279 Words   |  6 Pagesit is unconstitutional to limit an individual’s donations to as many parties as they want because in doing so their freedom of speech is being violated. The plaintiff is Shaun McCutcheon who is part of the Jefferson County Republic Party Steering Committee as well as the Reagan Foundation. The Republican National Committee was also a plaintiff. This case is a constitutional challenge to aggregate limits on contributions to federal candidates and to political committees such as PACs and parties. TheseRead MoreFreedom Of Speech Over The Internet1123 Words   |  5 Pagesexpress their opinions on different issues within the society. The internet has been considered as a tool that people use in promoting their freedom of expression. However, there have been questions on the extent to which people can exercise their freedom of speech over the internet. This paper describes the legal issues surrounding t he freedom of speech over the internet. The internet has created a platform where people can freely express their opinions on different issues within the society.Read MorePresident Richard Nixon s Speech850 Words   |  4 Pages Persuasion I strongly believe that Nixon s speech should be included in the argument chapter of the next edition of 40 model essay. On November 3, 1969, President Richard Nixon gave a televised address to the nation on his Vietnam War policy called â€Å"Vietnamization†. The speech, which Richard Nixon wrote himself, was given in response to a protest against the Vietnam War in cities across the nation. During his successful campaign for the presidency in 1968, Richard Nixon